Emergence of COVID-19 (formerly 2019-novel Coronavirus): a new threat from China
ResumenCoronaviruses cause diseases in birds, mammals, and humans, and were first identified in the mid-1960s (Lee, 2015; Bande et al., 2015; CDC, 2020). These viruses are named for the crown-like spikes on their surface (CDC, 2020). Based on the classification of the International Committee for Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) coronaviruses are from order Nidovirales, family Coronaviridae and subfamily Coronavirinae. The viruses contain a positive sense, single-stranded Ribonucleic acid (RNA) genome ranged from 26 to 32 kilobases (kb) in length and thus have the largest genomes for RNA viruses (van Regenmortel et al., 2000). These viruses are further divided into four main subgroups named alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. There are seven human coronaviruses cause infection in humans including 229E (alpha coronavirus), NL63 (alpha coronavirus), OC43 (beta coronavirus), HKU1 (beta coronavirus), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS (beta coronavirus), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, or SARS (beta coronavirus), and the newly identified 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) (CDC, 2020). Common symptoms of the disease include fever, cough, respiratory symptoms, shortness of breath and breathing difficulties (WHO, 2020).
Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Human Coronavirus Types. National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases, January 10, 2020. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/types.html (accessed on 09 February 2020).
World Health Organization (WHO). Coronavirus. WHO. 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus (accessed on 09 February 2020).
van Regenmortel MHV, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL, Carstens EB, Estes MK, Lemon SM, et al. Coronaviridae. In: MHV v R, Fauquet CM, DHL B, Carstens EB, Estes MK, Lemon SM, et al., editors. Virus taxonomy: Classification and nomenclature of viruses Seventh report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego: Academic Press; 2000. p. 835–49. ISBN 0123702003.
Lee C. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus: An emerging and re-emerging epizootic swine virus. Virol J. 2015;12(1):193.
Bande F, Arshad SS, Hair Bejo M, Moeini H, Omar AR. Progress and challenges toward the development of vaccines against avian infectious bronchitis. J Immunol Res. 2015;2015. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/424860.
XINHUANET. New-type coronavirus causes pneumonia in Wuhan: expert. Released on 9 Jan 2020. Available from: http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2020-01/09/c_138690570.htm (accessed on 09 February 2020).
Report of clustering pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan City. Wuhan Municipal Health Commission, 2019. Available from: http://wjw.wuhan.gov.cn/front/web/showDetail/2019123108989: In Chinese (accessed on 09 February 2020).
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) situation as of 09 February 2020, 16:00 (CET). World Health Organization. Available from: http://who.maps.arcgis.com/apps/opsdashboard/index.html#/c88e37cfc43b4ed3baf977d77e4a0667 (accessed on 10 February 2020).