Uso de Antibióticos y Resistencia Antimicrobiana en la Unidad de Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal

Palabras clave: Resistencia Microbiana a Antibióticos, Neonatología, Programas de Optimización de Uso de Antibióticos, Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal, Agentes Antibacterianos

Resumen

La sepsis neonatal constituye una de las principales causas de mortalidad neonatal en los países en desarrollo. Los neonatos, en particular los prematuros, tienen un mayor riesgo de infecciones bacterianas, por lo que el manejo con antibióticos constituye la terapia más frecuente en la Unidad de Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal (UCIN), estimándose en hasta un 70%. La presentación clínica de la sepsis neonatal es inespecífica en muchas ocasiones, lo que hace que la antibioticoterapia empírica se inicie tempranamente para evitar consecuencias deletéreas para los pacientes; su inespecificidad la caracteriza como un reto diagnóstico, por lo que diferentes autores han diseñado estrategias para determinar neonatos candidatos a terapia antimicrobiana.

La microbiología permanece en contacto estrecho con la clínica ya que conocer los gérmenes frecuentemente asociados a la sepsis neonatal ayuda a determinar el espectro antibiótico a usar. De igual forma, el conocimiento de la farmacología antibiótica es clave puesto que el tratamiento antibiótico no es inocuo y puede asociarse a aumento de morbilidad o mortalidad. El tiempo de evolución y los factores de riesgo maternos están asociados a los gérmenes responsables esperados, ya descritos por  múltiples estudios descriptivos a nivel mundial.

El uso indiscriminado de antibióticos de amplio espectro para el manejo de infecciones en los recién nacidos ha generado un aumento en la resistencia antibiótica, lo que a su vez lleva a tasas más altas de fallo terapéutico con el uso de las terapias antibióticas empíricas. A razón de lo anterior, los Programas de Vigilancia de Uso de Antibióticos juegan un papel determinante para monitorear el cambio en la resistencia a nivel local para ajustar y homogeneizar la práctica médica que logre regular el uso de antibióticos y mitigar la emergente resistencia bacteriana.

 

Biografía del autor/a

Juan Pablo García Henao, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira

Estudiante de medicina, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. Miembro del Semillero de Investigación de Medicina Interna (SIMI) de la Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira.

Juan Manuel García Ríos, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira

Estudiante de medicina, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. Miembro del Semillero de Investigación de Medicina Interna (SIMI) de la Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira.

Yonatan Andrés Naranjo Arango, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira

Estudiante de medicina, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. Miembro del Semillero de Investigación de Medicina Interna (SIMI) de la Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira.

Julián Grajales Rojas, Md., Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira

Médico general de la Universidad de Caldas. Especialista en Pediatría de la Universidad de Caldas. Subespecialista en Neotología de la Universidad del Valle. Docente asociado, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira.

Luis Gabriel Vinasco Sánchez, Md., Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira

Médico general, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. Especialista en Pediatría, Universidad del Valle. Sub Especialista en Infectología Pediátrica, Universidad del Valle. Docente asociado, Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. 

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Publicado
2021-11-24
Cómo citar
García Henao, J., García Ríos, J., Naranjo Arango, Y., Grajales Rojas, J., & Vinasco Sánchez, L. (2021). Uso de Antibióticos y Resistencia Antimicrobiana en la Unidad de Cuidado Intensivo Neonatal. Revista Médica De Risaralda, 27(2). Recuperado a partir de https://revistas.utp.edu.co/index.php/revistamedica/article/view/24631
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